Novel Neurotransmitter Real Time Measurements using MCSWV and Development of WINCS MAVEN Technology
Christopher Kimble, Malcolm McIntosh, Dong-Pyo Jang, Michael Heien, Kendall Lee, Charles Blaha, Abhijeet Barath, Kevin Bennet, Aaron Rusheen, Yoonbae Oh
Introduction: Previously, the Mayo Neural Engineering Laboratories has presented the work of developing WINCS Harmoni for use during DBS neurosurgery to measure neurotransmitter in vivo. However, the technology was limited to changes in neurotransmitter level due to voltammetry historically being a differential technique.
Objective: Our goal is to make real-time recording of basal neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain which would enhance our understanding Deep Brain Stimulation mechanisms and neuropsychiatric diseases.
Methods: Here, we describe the application of a new type of voltammetric technique, multiple cyclic square wave voltammetry (M-CSWV), for a robust analytical quantification of basal dopamine and serotonin concentrations in vivo with high temporal resolution. Further, we demonstrate that, M-CSWV enriches the electrochemical information which leads to higher sensitivity and selectivity by generating a four dimentional voltammogram.
Results: M-CSWV showed robust basal dopamine and serotonin quantification using principle component analysis in the anethetized rat. Pharmacological manipulation confirmed the technique’s selectivity for in vivo dopamine and serotonin detection. Finally, we developed the next generation of WINCS called MAVEN (Multifunctional Apparatus for Voltammetry, Electrophysiology, and Neuromodulation).
Conclusions: Our novel technology offers the potential to quantify basal neurotransmitter levels robustly in the brain which is a critical parameter for understanding neuropsychiatric dieases and the development of closed-loop deep brain stimulation.