Design and Physical Properties of 3 Dimensional Printed Models Used for Neurointervention: a Systematic Review
Muhammad Waqas, Kenneth Snyder, Ciprian Ionita, Adnan Siddiqui, Elad Levy, Maxim Mokin, Michael Springer, Kunal Vakharia, Richard Ducharme, Jason Davies
Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has revolutionized training, education, and device testing. Understanding the design and physical properties of 3D-printed models are important to understand their capabilities and limitations of these models.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to systematically review the design, physical properties, and manufacturing controls of 3D-printed vascular models used in the field of neurointervention.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature between January 1, 2000 and September 30, 2018. Public/Publisher MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Compendex, Cochrane, and Inspec databases were searched using Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms for design and physical attributes of 3D-printed models for neurointervention. Information on design, material, and material properties like compliance (elastic deformation), lubricity, flow system, and outcome measures were collected.
Results: Twenty-two articles were included. Nine studies described 3D-printed models for stroke intervention. Tango Plus (Stratasys, Eden Prairie, Minnesota) was the most common material used to develop these models. Four studies described a population-representative geometry model. All other studies reported patient-specific vascular geometry. Eight studies reported complete reconstruction of the circle of Willis, anterior, and posterior circulation. Four studies reported a model with an aortic arch and extracranial vasculature. No study quantified and reported compliance and lubricity. Nine studies described use of a programmable piston to control flow.
Conclusions: Our review found a large variation in the design, material, extent of reconstruction of cranial and extracranial vasculature, and outcomes of simulation procedures. The material properties of 3D printed models such as compliance and lubricity of vessel walls are not well reported in literature.