American Academy of Neurological Surgery
Name of the Academy
The name of this organization, a non-profit unincorporated association, shall be the American Academy of Neurological Surgery.
Purpose of the Academy
Section 1—The purpose of the Academy shall be (1) to promote scientific and social intercourse among its members, (2) to foster neurological surgery as a specialty of medicine, (3) to encourage and sponsor basic, translational, and clinical research activity in the neurological sciences, and (4) to promote the knowledge and skill of those who devote themselves to neurological surgery in accordance with the high ideals of the medical profession, and (5) to mentor and guide neurosurgeons in the practice of basic, translational, and clinical research.
Section 2—This Academy is a non-profit public benefit association and is not organized for the private gain of any person. It is organized as an unincorporated association for public educational and charitable purposes, operated exclusively within the meaning of Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Constitution and Bylaws, the association shall not carry on any activities not permitted to be carried on (a) by an association exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code or (b) by an association contributions to which are deductible under Section 170(c)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code.
No substantial part of the activities of this association shall consist of carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, and the association shall not participate or intervene in any political campaign (including the publication or distribution of statements) on behalf of any candidate for public office.
The property of this association is irrevocably dedicated to educational and charitable purposes and no part of the net income or assets of this association shall ever inure to the benefit of any director, officer or member thereof or to the benefit of any private person. Upon the dissolution or winding up of the association, its assets remaining after payment, or provision for payment, of all debts and liabilities of this association shall be distributed to a nonprofit fund, foundation, association or corporation which is organized and operated exclusively for educational and charitable purposes and which has established its tax exempt status under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Membership in the Academy
Section 1—The members of the Academy shall be physicians in good professional standing who limit their medical practice to neurological surgery.
Section 2—The membership of the Academy shall be classified as Active, Senior, Corresponding, Senior Corresponding, Honorary, and Inactive. These classes shall be defined as follows: Active Members shall be actively engaged in the practice of neurological surgery. Active Members shall automatically become Senior Members after twenty years of Active Membership or upon attaining the age of sixty years after ten years of Active Membership, whichever occurs first. Corresponding Members shall include physicians who are eligible for Active Membership but who, because of geographic location, cannot regularly attend annual meetings. Senior Corresponding Members shall include all Corresponding Members who have attained the age of sixty years. Honorary Members shall be distinguished physicians deemed worthy by the Academy of such status, following the election process as described in Article VII.
Section 3—The number of Active Members in the academy shall become limited upon the recommendation of the Executive Committee and the approval of a majority of the voting members at an annual business meeting.
Section 4—If an Active Member ceases to practice neurological surgery or assumes a status that is not in accord with Section 1 of Article III of this Constitution & Bylaws, he/she must resign or change his/her class of membership, unless exception is recommended by the Executive Committee and approved by unanimous vote of the members present and voting at an annual business meeting.
Section 5—Senior Members shall pay flat 50% of the regular Active Member rate until such time as they retire from the active practice of neurological surgery, after which no dues shall be assessed. Senior Members shall have all the other duties and privileges of Active Members, except they shall not be required to attend meetings. They shall have the right to hold elected office, vote, serve on committees, present papers and enter into all discussions.
Section 6—Corresponding, Senior Corresponding and Honorary Members shall not vote, hold office, nor be required to pay dues or attend annual meetings. They may serve on committees, present papers and participate in all discussion. The number of Corresponding Members shall not exceed 15% of the total membership of the Academy, which includes the Active, Senior, Honorary and already elected Corresponding Members. The category of Senior Corresponding Membership shall not be included in calculating the total membership number for the 15% limitation on Corresponding Members.
Section 7—Inactive Members shall be formerly Active Members who, by reason of illness or other cause, request such status in writing to the Secretary and are so designated by the Executive Committee of the Academy.
Section 8 — Retired Senior, Corresponding, Senior Corresponding, Honorary or Inactive Members shall not be required to pay dues but will be responsible for all personal expenses of attending the annual meeting and a registration fee to cover prorated expense of the social and other activities of the annual meeting. Senior, Senior Corresponding or Honorary Members who have fully retired from neurosurgical practice shall be charged a reduced registration fee for the annual meeting, set by the Executive Committee at its interim meeting prior to each annual meeting.
Section 9—The spouses of the Members of the Academy shall constitute an associate organization. The duties of its members shall consist of attention to details of registration and social activities necessary for the satisfactory execution of the annual meetings. The Chairperson of this organization shall be appointed annually by the President.
Officers of the Academy
Section 1—The Officers of the Academy shall consist of a President, President-Elect, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer and Historian. The Officers shall be Active or Senior Members at the time of election. Officers are elected at each annual meeting and take office at the close of that meeting. The term of office for position of President, President-Elect, and Vice-President is one year. The term of office for the positions of Secretary, Treasurer, Member-at -large and Historian is three years. The President shall appoint a Nominating Committee who shall present to the membership a slate of nominations for officers to be elected during that annual meeting. The slate of nominations shall be presented to the membership by electronic mail at least sixty days before the annual meeting. Potential nominees may be submitted to the Nominating committee by Academy members eligible to vote, at least 75 days prior to the annual meeting. The election shall be by ballot and the candidate receiving the greatest number of votes shall be elected to the office for which nominated.
Section 2—In case of vacancy of any elected office during the year, the position shall be filled by appointment of the Executive Committee, the officer to serve until the next annual meeting.
Section 3—The President shall preside at all meetings and decide all questions of order; he/she shall appoint all committees; he/she shall cast the deciding vote in all tie votes. The President is Chairperson of the Executive Committee.
Section 4—The Vice-President shall act in the place of the President during his/her absence.
Section 5—The President-Elect shall assume the office of President at the close of the next annual meeting.
Section 6—The Secretary shall keep a record of attendance, keep the minutes of each meeting, read all correspondence to the Academy, keep a record of all transactions and correspondence, send notices to the membership of all regular and special meetings, and perform other duties as prescribed in this Constitution & Bylaws or Rules & Regulations.
Section 7—The Treasurer shall act as custodian of the funds and assets of the Academy, shall deposit all monies received by him to the account of the Academy, shall make all payments in the name of the Academy, shall record all receipts, deposits and disbursements, shall keep accurate records subject to inspection by the Auditing Committee, shall collect all dues and assessments and notify each member of any unpaid dues or assessments in a timely fashion.
Section 8—The Historian shall preserve the previous records of the Academy, including printed programs, photographs, official and unofficial items of interest to current and future members.
Committees of the Academy
Section 1—There shall be an Executive Committee composed of eight members; the six Officers, the immediate Past-President and one member-at-large appointed by the President. It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to conduct the affairs of the Academy as provided for in this Constitution & Bylaws and to have charge of the policies and activities of the Academy between annual meetings of the membership.
Section 2—Each year the President shall appoint a Nominating Committee, composed of three members (The past President, the President and the President-elect) who shall present to the membership a slate of nominations for officers to be elected during the annual meeting.
Section 3—Each year the President shall appoint an Auditing Committee, composed of three members, who shall review with the Treasurer the financial records of the Academy and report to the membership during the annual meeting.
Section 4—There shall be a Membership Advisory Committee, composed of the two most recent Past-Presidents, the current President, Secretary, Treasurer, and two members appointed by the President from the membership. These two members-at-large shall each serve a term of two years, one appointed each year by the President. The Chairperson of the Committee shall be the senior Past-President. A Sub-Committee on Corresponding Membership shall be appointed by the President each year, composed of at least three members of which a majority are Active Members. At least one member of the Sub-Committee shall also be a member of the Membership Advisory Committee. It shall be the duty of the Sub-Committee to receive and initiate proposals for Corresponding Members, to obtain reliable verbal and/or written information concerning the qualifications of candidates and to make recommendations to the Membership Advisory Committee regarding proposals for Corresponding Membership. Candidates for any class of membership must be considered by the Membership Advisory Committee and the Executive Committee before being submitted to vote of the Active and Senior Members during an annual meeting.
Section 5—There shall be a Program Committee composed of three members, one member appointed each year by the President for a three-year term, with the senior member serving as Chairperson.
Section 6—There shall be an Academy Award Committee composed of three members, one member selected each year by the President for a three-year term, with the senior member serving as Chairperson.
Section 7—There shall be an annual Round Robin journal consisting of confidential contributions by members of the Academy. The Round Robin journal shall be administered by a Round Robin Chairperson whose duty it shall be to annually solicit contributions from the membership and to publish and distribute this journal to the membership in advance of the annual meeting. Each year, at the time of the annual meeting, the President shall appoint a Chairperson for the subsequent year.
Section 8—There shall be a Research Advisory Committee composed of at least four members, one member selected each year by the President for a four-year term, with the senior member serving as the Chairperson. The duty of this Committee will be to provide the membership annually with a summary of up-to-date research opportunities in the neurological sciences; to maintain a list of current academic job opportunities in neurosurgery on the Academy website; to review and critique research grants of Academy members, as needed, prior to submission to peer-review granting agencies; to promote the participation of Academy members on study sections of national granting agencies; and to provide research mentorship to newly admitted members or promising prospective members. Members of the Research Advisory Committee may also be requested, from time to time, to review and report on the research qualifications of candidates proposed for membership in the Academy, in order to assist the Membership Advisory Committee. (Approved at 2012 meeting)
Meetings of the Academy
Section 1—The Academy shall hold at least one meeting each year at a place determined by the membership at a previous meeting. A portion of this meeting shall be devoted to scientific medical discussion. The scientific portion of the meeting shall be arranged by the Program Committee. Disposition of the scientific material presented at the meeting shall be at the discretion of the Secretary on the recommendation of the Executive Committee.
Section 2—An annual award shall be given, known as the "Award of the American Academy of Neurological Surgery" for presentation at the annual meeting. The announcement of this award shall be sent to the Program Directors of Neurosurgical Residency Training Programs in the United States and Canada, and to the Chairperson of Neurosurgical Departments of all approved medical schools in North America. Candidates for the Academy Award shall be neurosurgical residents in training in North America or neurosurgeons not yet certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery. Papers shall be submitted to the Secretary describing either clinical or laboratory research, for which the candidate has had the primary responsibility. The paper must be received by the Secretary by the deadline listed in the announcement for that year and the candidate must certify that this clinical/research work has not been presented at any other national meeting or submitted for publication. The Academy Award Committee shall select the best one of entries for that year as the "Academy Award" and the author shall be invited to attend the annual meeting and present the paper. All expenses of the author and spouse in attending the annual meeting will be paid by the Academy. In addition, the winner shall receive an engraved certificate and an honorarium (amount to be determined each year by the Executive Committee). The Award Committee is not obligated to select an Award paper if acceptable entries are not received for that year.
Section 3—Special meetings of the Academy may be called by the Executive Committee. Every member shall be notified of the time and place of the special meeting at least two weeks in advance of the date of the meeting.
Section 4—Robert's Rules of Order, Revised, shall govern the conduct of the business meetings of the Academy and the duties of its officers. The order of business shall be as follows: roll call, reading of the previous minutes, reading of correspondence, old business, reports of officers including the Secretary's report and the Treasurer's report, reports of committees, election of new members, election of Officers, announcement of appointments, new business, and adjournment.
Candidates for Membership in the Academy
Section 1—Candidates of membership in the Academy must be medical school graduates and have adequate post-graduate training in neurology, neurological surgery and related fields of medicine acceptable to the membership Advisory Committee and to the voting membership.
Section 2—Each candidate for Active Membership in the Academy must be nominated by an Active or Senior Member, in writing, to the Secretary. The nomination must include a recent photograph, current curriculum vitae that provides complete information on education, post-graduate training, bibliography, personality, ethics and character of the candidate, status as a neurosurgeon and other information specified on the "Proposal for Membership" form which is available from the Secretary. The nomination must be seconded in writing by at least one Active or Senior Member other than the first proposer. A prospective member must attend at least one Annual meeting as a guest and present an abstract. 
Section 3—The completed Proposal for Active Membership, with at least two sponsoring letters from Active or Senior Members, shall be submitted to the Secretary at least four months prior to the annual meeting, if consideration is desired for that meeting. The Secretary shall forward the Proposal to the Membership Advisory Committee for consideration. The Membership Advisory Committee shall select the candidate(s) for the ballot, subject to review by the Executive Committee, for election by the voting membership at an annual meeting.
Section 4—Selection of candidates for Corresponding Membership shall be based on an evaluation of scientific and professional eminence in the individual's home country and on the international scene with the express purpose of seeking as wide a geographic representation as possible while avoiding on overlap in respect to concurrent membership in other neurosurgical societies in the United States. A candidate must be known personally by at least two Active or Senior Members of the Academy. A candidate for Corresponding Membership shall not be required to attend a prior meeting of the Academy as a guest before consideration of election to membership. Proposal for Corresponding Membership may be submitted by any Academy member in writing to the Secretary for forwarding to the Sub-Committee on Corresponding Membership. The Sub-Committee will evaluate the proposal in accord with the criteria listed above and make recommendations to the Membership Advisory Committee.
Section 5—Honorary members shall be selected from outstanding and recognized leaders in neurological surgery or neurological sciences. Proposal for Honorary Membership may be submitted by any Academy Member in writing to the Secretary. Such proposals shall be considered by the Membership Advisory Committee and the Executive Committee and at discretion of the Executive Committee placed on the ballot for election during an annual meeting.
Election of Members
Section 1—No candidate shall be elected to Active Membership in the Academy who has not attended at least one prior meeting as a guest.
Section 2—The Membership Advisory Committee and the Executive Committee will circulate its preferred list of candidates to the Active and Senior Members of the Academy one month prior to the Annual Meeting. A voting member who has concerns about a candidate being put forward for membership is encouraged to address these concerns directly with the Chair of the Membership Advisory Committee prior to the Annual Meeting. At the Annual Meeting, candidates who receive an eighty percent favorable vote or more from voting members shall be elected. A candidate who has failed to be elected to membership may be proposed in writing to the Membership Advisory committee for reconsideration at a subsequent annual meeting only on written recommendation of three Active or Senior Members.
Section 3—Notification of the election of a candidate to Active membership in the Academy shall be deferred until four weeks have elapsed from the date of the election when official notification will be made by the Secretary. Members shall not discuss outcome of the election with the candidates during the annual meeting.
Dues and Assessments
Section 1—All Active Members of the Academy shall pay annual dues, the amount to be determined by the Executive Committee and approved by the voting membership each year. Members on Inactive status shall not pay dues or be required to attend meetings. Retired Senior, Corresponding, Senior Corresponding, or Honorary Members shall not be required to pay dues, although an assessment may be ordered with proper notice by the Executive Committee for such classes of membership. Senior Members shall pay dues at 50% of the regular Active Member rate until such time as they retire from the active practice of neurological surgery, after which no dues shall be assessed.
Section 2—All dues and assessments are payable on billing by the Treasurer.
Section 3—The estimated expenses of the meetings of the Academy not covered by the annual dues shall be prorated among the attending Members and guests, regardless of whether the spouse was in attendance, by a registration fee determined by the Executive Committee at its interim meeting prior to the annual meeting. Senior, Senior Corresponding or Honorary Members who have fully retired from practice shall be charged a reduced registration fee for the annual meeting, set by the Executive Committee at its interim meeting prior to the annual meeting. Certain expenses of the non-official and social activities during each annual meeting may be charged to each member and guest attending the meeting, including the spouse when appropriate. If the registration fee or such expenses assessed a guest are not paid by the guest, the amount shall be billed to the Member extending the invitation to that guest.
Status of Members
Section 1—All members shall be considered in good standing when abiding by this Constitution & Bylaws and the Rules & Regulations of the Academy.
Section 2—A member delinquent in dues or assessments for two consecutive years is automatically suspended from membership, regardless of class.
Section 3—Any member may be suspended by the President for cause, as determined in the sole discretion of the President. Such cause may include, but not be limited to, unprofessional, immoral, criminal, or other inappropriate conduct as determined by the President with respect to the member. Written notice of the suspension shall be provided reasonably promptly by the President to the suspended member, with a copy to the Secretary. Any such suspension shall continue through the conclusion of the next annual meeting. At the next annual meeting, expulsion of the suspended member from the Academy shall be considered as provided by Section 4. In the event that the suspended member is not expelled as provided in Section 4, then the member shall automatically be reinstated to membership at the conclusion of said annual meeting.
Section 4—Expulsion of a member from the Academy, including determination of the grounds for such expulsion, may be accomplished by a three-fourth's majority vote of the Active and Senior Members present and voting, and becomes effective immediately.
Section 5—Any Active Member who fails to attend three consecutive annual meetings without an excuse acceptable to the Executive Committee shall automatically terminate his/her membership in the Academy.
Section 6—Any member who has been suspended or expelled from membership may be reinstated upon a three-fourth's majority vote of the Active and Senior Members present and voting at an annual meeting, and become effective immediately.
Guests to Annual Meeting
Section 1—It shall be the custom of the Academy to take interest in young neurological surgeons who are in residency training. On the request of any Member, a neurosurgical resident may be invited to attend the annual meeting as a guest, and the non-official and social expenses of such invited guest shall be billed to the Member extending the invitation.
Section 2—In addition to inviting neurosurgical residents, each member is allowed one guest not in residency training, and is responsible for any registration fee, non-official and social expenses of that guest. Such guest may also be invited to participate in the scientific program.
Section 3—It shall be customary for the Program Committee to invite guests to participate in the scientific section of the program. Allocation and payment of expenses for such guests may vary according to the individual guest, as provided in sections 1, 2, 5 and 7 of this Article.
Section 4—The President shall have the prerogative of inviting special guests in addition to those invited by the Program Committee, Membership Advisory Committee or by Members.
Section 5—Special guests may be invited by the Membership Advisory Committee with approval of the Executive Committee for consideration as prospective members of the Academy. The registration fee and non-official and social expenses (not to include transportation, lodging or meals) of these special guests shall be included in the official expenses of the meeting.
Section 6—Distinguished local individuals may be invited by the local host to attend the scientific and/or social functions of the annual meetings, and such expenses (not including transportation, lodging or meals) shall be included in the official expenses of the meeting. The invitation of such local guests must be approved by the Executive Committee.
Section 7—The Program Committee, with approval of the Executive committee, may invite one or more eminent scientists to participate in the scientific program of the annual meeting. Any expenses related to the attendance of such distinguished speakers shall be included in the official expenses of the annual meeting.
Section 1—The Articles of this Constitution & Bylaws may be amended by a three-fourth's affirmative vote of the Active and Senior Members present and voting at any stated meeting, provided due notice of all proposed changes have been sent to all Members at least two months before said meeting.
American Academy of Neurological Surgery
Rules & Regulations
By-Laws Revised – November 2007, October 2012, September 2019
Section 1—An abstract of all papers submitted for presentation at the annual meeting shall be received by the Chairperson of the Program Committee at least three months before the meeting. The Program Committee shall have full jurisdiction to select the papers to be presented at the annual meeting, inviting special speakers when appropriate.
Section 2—The time allocated for presentation of a paper shall be determined by the Program Committee. A tentative program shall be sent to each member by the Secretary at least two weeks prior to the annual meeting.
Section 3—The number of Active Members in the Academy shall be limited to one hundred twenty (120) effective 2013.
Section 4—The annual dues for Active Members shall be determined each year by the Executive Committee, subject to approval of the voting members at the annual meeting.
Section 5—A photograph of the Members and Guests attending the annual meeting shall be taken at least once in every five years.
Section 6—The honorarium for the Academy Award winner shall be $500.00, effective in 1992.
Section 7—When deemed appropriate by the Academy Award Committee, an Honorable Mention paper may be selected and announced in the printed program for that meeting, with the title and name of the author listed.
Section 8—Papers submitted for the Academy Award may be duplicated and distributed to members of the Academy Award Committee and are non-returnable to the applicants.
Section 9—The secretary of the Secretary, the secretary of the Treasurer, and the secretary of the Chairperson of the Round Robin Committee may be given an annual honorarium, at the discretion of the Executive Committee.
Section 10 – Late registration within 14 days of beginning day of the annual meeting will require a 20% surcharge on the regular registration fee. No refund will be permitted for cancellation of registration within 14 days before the beginning day of the annual meeting.
Section 11—These Rules & Regulations may be amended by recommendation of the Executive Committee and approval by majority affirmative vote of the voting Members at an annual meeting of the Academy.
American Academy of Neurological Surgery
Review of the Procedure for Election to Active Membership
When the seven founders and the seven newly elected members of the Academy met in 1938, the initial concept was to admit all "qualified" neurosurgeons to membership. Guests would be invited to the annual meeting by members and the election would be by unanimous vote.
By the 8th meeting in 1946, there were 41 members and 2 Honorary members (Drs. Craig and Spurling). A notation was entered into the minutes "So many good neurosurgeons were entering the practice that choice between them was difficult to still retain the original intimate character of the Academy."
During the tumultuous 9th meeting in Colorado Springs in 1947, hot tempers erupted about the selection of (or lack of) new members and the Academy almost disintegrated. The Executive Committee was given responsibility to consider changes in the process and to decide if, when and where an annual meeting would be held the next year. Subsequent communications suggested that proposals for membership would be screened by the Executive Committee prior to the meeting and then a preferential vote, without a blackball possible, would determine election, using a 1 to 9 preferential ranking.
The 10th annual meeting was held in Montreal, with 33 guests present, and preferential voting did not elect any new members. The Executive Committee then decided to use pre-screening with recommendations to the membership and require only an 80% favorable vote of the members present and voting to elect, with no limit on the number. At the 11th meeting in 1949 six new members were elected.
At the 13th meeting in 1951 there were 34 guests and it was decided to limit the number of new members to five each year. In 1952 a Membership Advisory Committee was established and in 1953 a provision was approved that three negative votes would reject a candidate temporarily, and after two failures the candidate would be ineligible for further consideration.
At the 25th meeting in 1963, the number of negative votes to reject a candidate temporarily was increased to 5, with the added provision that a revote could be ordered by the Presiding Officer.
In 1987, revision of the Bylaws eliminated the "revote provision during the same annual meeting” as it had not been successful when used by the President. A temporarily rejected candidate can not now be considered again until a subsequent annual meeting and requires such recommendation by three active or senior members to bring this to the consideration of the Membership Advisory Committee. In 1989, revision of the Bylaws increased to 6 the number of negative votes to reject a candidate.
It should be emphasized that any notification (either yes or no) to a candidate about the outcome of the election is not to be done by anyone during the meeting, but deferred for four weeks and then officially made by the Secretary to the candidate(s) elected.
The American Academy of Neurological Surgery
Suggestions for Nomination to Membership
In the historical sine wave form that appears to characterize election of new members to the Academy, there is frequent wailing and gnashing of teeth over the failure of election of a candidate, with younger members asking "why" and disappointed members demanding that the election procedure be changed.
Thus it seems worthwhile to review the process and suggest how best to work "within the system," hoping to ensure more satisfaction for everyone, yet preserving the traditions that have served the Academy so well for the past 60 years. These suggestions do not represent an official policy statement of the Membership Committee or of the Officers of the Academy.
(1) You should be alert to the individual who has the personal qualities, professional qualifications, potential for achievement and leadership in neurological surgery, within or outside your own training program, office or community. If you have a small practice group, there is some disadvantage to proposing your own associate until you are ready to retire, as there will be conflict in regular attendance to meetings by both of you. In a large group, naturally this would not apply.
(2) Invite the potential candidate as your guest to an annual meeting. It is highly desirable that he/she submit a paper for the program. It is important that you attend that meeting, acting as host and being with the candidate and his/her spouse during the social events—making introductions to as many members as possible. If everything goes well, then
(3) Request an application form from the Secretary, complete it with a recent photograph and curriculum vitae and mail to the Secretary with your letter of support. Obtain letters of support from one or more other active members.
(4) When the Membership Committee Chairperson informs you that your candidate is on the ballot, be sure to attend the meeting and the first business session, and personally talk to other members before the election, and respond to any questions. If you cannot attend, request some member to substitute for you, or it might be wise to ask the Chairperson to defer consideration on your candidate until a subsequent year.
Remember that at least 35 new members have been elected during each decade during the past 50 years. With a limit of 100 active members, and currently 95 active members and 100+ senior members, the process seems to be working in a fashion satisfactory to the membership. Quality rather than quantity is still the keyword. Remember that any notification about the election results is deferred until four weeks after the meeting. Do not congratulate a new member elected during the meeting under any circumstances, for reasons that should be obvious to all of us. I hope that these suggestions are of help to you.
Byron Cone Pevehouse
Posted January 28, 2016
Revised September 20, 2019